Glossary

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Glossary

Abatement is a process to "permanently" (20 years or more) control a lead hazard to limit exposure to harmful levels of lead. Abatement can include strategies such as component replacement, paint removal, encapsulation with an approved product, or permanently covering bare lead­contaminated soil. Specialized cleaning precedes clearance testing, which is always performed at the end of an abatement project to ensure that dust which may be left behind does not contain excessive levels of lead.

Clearance testing is done at the end of a hazard control action, such as lead abatement, to determine whether the housing unit has any hazardous levels of leaded dust such as may be released during abatement. Results from clearance testing are used to determine whether the housing unit may be reoccupied after the hazard control action. Clearance testing may also be performed following renovation activities to ensure freedom from hazardous levels of leaded dust that might have been generated and not removed during renovation.

Commercially Available is a term used within the lists of laboratories accredited under the NLLAP to indicate whether or not a laboratory offers its services to the public. Some lead laboratories obtain accreditation for reasons other than to offer services to the public. The Lead Listing listings all laboratories accredited under the NLLAP. See lead analysis laboratories for further information.

Dust testing is a procedure used to measure the amount of leaded dust on a horizontal surfaces, such as a floor or window sill. Typically, dust testing is performed by collecting dust samples using pre-moistened towelettes (dust wipes), and sending the samples to a laboratory accredited under the NLLAP for analysis (see lead analysis laboratories). Results from dust testing are expressed in terms of micrograms of lead per square foot (mg/ft˛). Dust testing can be taken as an initial step to determine if hazardous levels of lead exist (for example, as part of a risk assessment) or at the end of lead abatement or other hazard control work to determine if the unit may be reoccupied (see clearance testing). Attention to dust lead levels is important because ingesting contaminated dust is the most common route of children's exposure to lead.

Encapsulants are products designed to coat and seal surfaces covered or coated with lead­based paint to prevent exposure to lead. These products may be used when performing a lead abatement. There are a number of different encapsulant products on the market, and their quality and effectiveness are believed to vary. National performance standards have been developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM E 1795, E 1796, and E 1797). Encapsulants are not recommended for friction surfaces or surfaces that are badly deteriorated.

Essential maintenance practices are a set of measures designed for pre­1978 rental properties that may contain lead­based paint. These are low cost measures intended to reduce the chance that lead hazards will develop, avoid the inadvertent creation of hazards, and ensure the prompt, safe, and effective repair of deteriorating paint. These practices are appropriate for properties in good condition but are not designed to control lead hazards in higher risk properties.

Home inspection is what many buyers of homes for resale obtain to determine if building systems (such as heating and plumbing) are in good working order, and to identify structural problems (such as roof leaks) or other defects (such as peeling paint). A home inspection should not be confused with a lead inspection or a lead risk assessment. However, many home inspectors are now being trained in the basics of lead hazards, and some are becoming trained or state certified as lead inspectors and lead risk assessors.

The HUD Guidelines is the common name used to refer to the Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead­Based Paint Hazards in Housing published by the Department of Housing and Urban Development in 1995 and revised in 1997. These Guidelines present the best currently known practices for virtually all lead hazard evaluation and control measures. All lead service providers should be familiar with these Guidelines.

Interim controls are strategies that manage lead­based paint in-place on an ongoing basis in ways to limit exposure to harmful levels of lead. Interim controls include such measures as proper preparation and repair of peeling lead-based paint (including identification and control of the causes of peeling paint), specialized cleaning for lead dust, and temporary covering of lead­contaminated bare soil, such as with mulch or gravel. Interim controls always include periodic monitoring and ongoing maintenance to ensure that lead-based paint does not deteriorate and result in a lead hazard.

Lead analysis laboratories are laboratories that perform lead analysis on collected samples such as paint chips, soil, and/or dust collected on wipes (dust wipes). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes lead laboratories accredited under the National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP) as capable of performing these analyses. See NLLAP for further information.

A lead hazard control plan is a property­wide approach to controlling lead hazards in multi­family properties (apartment buildings). This plan is developed by a Certified Risk Assessor based on a lead risk assessment to identify lead hazards, and establishes clear procedures and a systematic approach to their control. Among other things, these plans call for early attention to units occupied by a family with a young child, and incorporate lead paint work into other repair and capital improvement projects. The concept for the lead hazard control plan has been incorporated in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard No. PS 61­96.

Lead­based paint is paint or other coatings on a surface which has a lead content equal to or above an established threshold. The federal standards are 1.0 milligrams per square centimeter (1.0 mg/cm˛) or 0.5% (5,000 parts per million). A few states and cities have different thresholds. The amount of lead in paint and other coatings can vary widely from zero to over 50% by weight. Paint and other coatings that fall below these established thresholds may still contain some lead. Lead was banned in U.S. residential paint (to no more than 0.06%) in 1978.

Lead­based paint hazards are conditions (defined in federal law) that cause exposure to lead at levels harmful to humans. Deteriorating leaded paint is of special concern, but children do not have to eat paint chips to be poisoned. Most children are poisoned by ingesting lead­contaminated dust, which can be invisible to the naked eye. Lead dust settles on surfaces such as floors, gets on children's toys and hands, and then into their mouths. Exposure can also result from lead­contaminated bare soil and lead-based paint on surfaces that are worn down by friction, are repeatedly subject to impact, or are chewed. Intact lead­based paint on surfaces such as walls and ceilings is not considered a hazard.

Lead evaluation services are performed to evaluate the presence of lead in a structure. Types of lead evaluation services include lead inspections and lead risk assessments. Lead evaluation services are performed by trained lead inspectors and trained risk assessors. As of 1 March 2000, anyone performing lead evaluation services must be certified (licensed) by a state or by EPA. See Part 6 for more information on state and EPA lead certification programs.

Lead hazard control services are performed to control any hazards that result from the presence of lead in a structure. Types of lead hazard control services include lead abatements and interim controls. Lead hazard control services are performed by trained lead service providers. Trained lead service providers for lead hazard control services can be titled under a variety of names, but are generally classified as: lead project designers, lead [abatement] supervisors, lead [abatement] workers, and lead-safe workers. As of 1 March 2000, anyone performing lead hazard abatement must be certified (licensed) by a state or the EPA. See Part 6 for more information on lead certification programs.

Lead inspection is an evaluation performed by a lead inspector or risk assessor to determine the presence or absence of lead­based paint on painted or coated surfaces. A lead inspection is a surface-by-surface investigation designed to answer two general questions: Is lead-based paint present?; and, if present, where is the lead-based paint? Lead inspections are generally performed using an XRF (X­Ray Fluorescence) analyzer, which provides immediate results as to whether or not lead­based paint is present on the tested surface. It is also possible to perform a lead inspection by collecting paint samples and sending them to an EPA-recognized laboratory for lead analysis. Chemical Spot Test kits are not currently recommended by HUD or EPA for lead inspections.

Lead risk assessment is an evaluation performed by a certified risk assessor to identify lead hazards from deteriorated paint, dust, and bare soil and to identify options to control the lead hazards. Risk assessments always include dust testing and may also include analyzing for lead in soil, deteriorated paint and other deteriorated coatings. Chemical Spot Test kits are not currently recommended for lead risk assessments.

A lead service provider is a term used by The Lead Listing as a synonym for providers that conduct lead hazard evaluation and lead hazard control services (lead inspectors, lead risk assessors, lead supervisors, and lead project designers). Whereas a provider is generically used to include all service provider types listed by The Lead Listing (lead service providers plus lead-trained renovators and lead analysis laboratories).

A lead-safe worker is a term used by The Lead Listing for a person who has successfully completed a HUD or State recognized lead-safe work practices training course that provides knowledge as to how to conduct various renovation/remodeling/rehabilitation or operations and maintenace activities in a lead-safe manner. These persons are not certified to conduct lead hazard evaluation or lead abatement activities. Lead-safe work practices training focus on minimizing dust generation and dust transport to occupied areas. Lead-safe workers meet the requirements to conduct interim controls work under the HUD Lead-Safe Housing Rule, 24 CFR Part 35.

A National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP) is a laboratory accreditation program whereby EPA recognizes laboratories as being proficient for analyzing for lead in several sample matrices (paint chips, soil, and/or dust wipes). Laboratory analysis of samples collected for lead determinations shall be performed by a laboratory accredited under the NLLAP (40 CFR Part 745).

Project Designer is any certified person who plans and/or designs lead abatement projects. Project Designers are generally used for planning large lead abatement projects. Within some states, project designers may also be required for small lead abatement projects.

A Renovator is any person who performs a renovation for compensation.

Renovation is the modification of any existing structure, or portion thereof, that results in disturbance of painted surfaces, unless that activity is performed as part of an abatement. Renovation includes, but is not limited to: the removal or modification of painted surfaces or painted components (such as modification of painted components or surface preparation activity that may generate dust); the removal of large structures (such as walls, ceilings, large surface re-plastering or major re-plumbing); and window replacement.

Spot test kits are the common name for products sold over­the­counter which are used to detect lead in a paint chip, piece of pottery, etc. The chemicals used turn color when they come in contact with lead or other elements. While these tests are low cost and give immediate results, they are not currently recommended by HUD or EPA for use during the conduct of lead inspections and lead risk assessments.

Supervisor (Contractor) is any certified or trained business entity or person who is responsible for performance of the actual abatement within a lead abatement project. Within some states, supervisors (contractors) may be authorized to serve as project designers for small lead abatement projects.

Title X (spoken as "Title Ten") is the common name of the 1992 Federal law which called for greater attention to lead­based paint hazards, and directed a shift in the national approach to make housing free from lead hazards. Notification and disclosure requirements were called for by Title X, among many other strategies for reducing lead hazards. The formal name for Title X is the "Residential Lead­Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992" (42 USC 4851 et seq.). Title X is also Title X of the 1992 Housing and Community Development Act.

Coalition to Prevent Lead Poisoning 

Committed to ending childhood lead poisoning in Monroe County by 2010

For more information, contact:  pbrantingham@leadsafeby2010.org