Following are many of the foundation documents about lead poisoning,
its causes, consequences, and costs:
Overviews of Lead Poisoning
|Binder S, Falk H.
Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning.
Atlanta, Ga: Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1991.|
|Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children.
Atlanta, Ga: Dept of Health and Human Services; 1991.|
|Lanphear BP. The
paradox of lead poisoning prevention [published erratum appears in
Science 1998 Oct 2;282(5386):51] [see comments].
Science.281(5383):1617-8, 1998 Sep 11.|
|Lanphear BP. Byrd RS. Auinger P.
Schaffer SJ. Community characteristics associated with elevated
blood lead levels in children. Pediatrics. 101(2):264-71, 1998 Feb.
Pub Med ID:
|Needleman HL. Childhood
lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention
[see comments]. [Review] [38 refs] American Journal of Public
Health. 88(12):1871-7, 1998 Dec.|
Lead's Effect on IQ
|Canfield RL, Henderson CR, Cory-Slechta DA, et al.
Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations
below 10 mcg per deciliter. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:1517-26. (abstract)|
|Lanphear BP. Dietrich K. Auinger P. Cox C.
Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10
microg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Reports.
115(6):521-9, 2000 Nov-Dec. (abstract)
Pub Med ID:
|Payton M, Riggs KM, Spiro A, Weiss ST, Hu H.
Relations of bone and blood lead to cognitive function: the VA
Normative Aging Study. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998;20:19-27.|
|Schwartz J. Low-level lead exposure and children's
IQ: a meta-analysis and search for a threshold. Environ Res.
|Soong WT. Chao KY. Jang CS. Wang JD. Long-term
effect of increased lead absorption on intelligence of children.
Archives of Environmental Health. 54(4):297-301, 1999 Jul-Aug.|
Lead's Effect on Kid's Classroom Performance
|Bellinger DC, Stiles KM, Needleman HL. Low-level
lead exposure, intelligence, and academic achievement: a long-term
follow-up study. Pediatrics. 1992;90:855-861.|
|Needleman, HL, Gunnoe, C, Leviton,A et al(1979)
Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance in children with
elevated dentine lead levels. NEJM 300, 584-695.|
Lead's Effect on Juvenile Delinquency & Adult Criminality
|Needleman HL, Riess JA, Tobin MJ, Biesecker GE,
Greenhouse JB. Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior [see
comments]. JAMA 1996;275(5):363-9.|
McFarland C, Ness RB, Fienberg SE, Tobin MJ. Bone lead levels in
adjudicated delinquents - a case control study. Neurotox Teratol.
|Dietrich KN, Ris
MD, Succop PA, Berger OG, Bornschein RL. Early exposure to lead and
juvenile delinquency. Neurotox Teratol. 2001;23:511-8.|
Lynch MJ. The relationship between lead exposure and homicide. Arch
Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:579-82.|
Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred EN. The long-term effects of
exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. N Engl J Med.
Lead's Effect on Kid's Brain Development
|Goldstein GW. Needleman HL,
editors.Human Lead Exposure. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1992;
Developmental Neurobiology of Lead Toxicity. p. 125-35.|
Lead's Effect on Overall Child Development
|Davis JM, Svendsgaard DJ. Lead and child
development. Nature. 1987;329:298-300.|
Lead during pregnancy
Lead exposure in pregnancy: a review of the literature and argument
for routine prenatal screening. [Review] [51 refs]
Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 56(4):231-8, 2001 Apr.|
|Gomaa A, Hu H, Bellinger D, Schwartz
J, Tsaih SW, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Aro A,
Hernandez-Avila M. Maternal Bone Lead as an Independent Risk Factor
for Fetal Neurotoxicity: A Prospective Study, PEDIATRICS Vol. 110 No.
1 July 2002, pp. 110-118.
Abstract. Pub Med ID
Lead and Lactation
|Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Mauricio Hernández-Avila,
Teresa González-Cossío, Isabelle Romieu, Antonio Aro, Eduardo
Palazuelos, Joel Schwartz, and Howard Hu. Impact of Breastfeeding on
the Mobilization of Lead from Bone Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:420-428.
Lead in Bone- A Measure of Cumulative Exposure, & Endogenous Source
of Continued Poisoning
|Hu H, Milder FL, Burger DE.
X-ray fluorescence: issues surrounding the
application of a new tool for measuring burden of lead.
Environmental Research 1989;49(2):295-317.|
|Hu H, Milder FL, Burger DE.
X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead burden in subjects with
low-level community lead exposure. Archives of
Environmental Health 1990;45(6):335-41.|
|Hu H, Rabinowitz M, Smith D.
Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of
chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. [Review] [94
Environmental Health Perspectives 1998;106(1):1-8.|
|Hu H, Watanabe H, Payton M, Korrick S, Rotnitzky A.
The relationship between bone lead and
hemoglobin. JAMA 1994;272(19):1512-7.|
|H. Hu and M.
Hernandez-Avila. Invited Commentary:
Lead, Bones, Women, and Pregnancy--The Poison Within?
Am. J. Epidemiol., December 15, 2002; 156(12): 1088 - 1091.|
Lead's Contribution to Dental Caries
|Moss ME. Lanphear BP. Auinger P. Association of
dental caries and blood lead levels [see comments]. JAMA.
281(24):2294-8, 1999 Jun 23-30.|
Costs to Society of Continued Childhood Lead Poisoning
|Muir T, Zegarac M. Societal costs of
exposure to toxic substances: Economic and health costs of four case
studies that are candidates for environmental causation. Environ
Health Perspect 2001; 109(suppl 6):885-903. (Full Text:
PDF: ) Pub Med ID:
|Grosse, Scott D., Matte, Thomas, Schwartz, Joel ,
and Richard Jackson;
"Economic Gains Resulting from the Reduction in Children's Exposure to
Lead in the United States," Environmental Health
Perspectives, Volume 110, Number 6(June 2002) |
|Salkever, David; "Updated Estimates of Earnings
Benefits from Reduced Exposure of Children to Environmental
Lead."Environmental Research, 70,1-6 (1996).|
|Schwartz, Joel ;"Societal Benefits of Reducing Lead
Exposure", Environmental Research, 66, 105-124 (1994) |
Interventions- Screening and Environmental Interventions
|Markowitz M. Rosen JF. Clemente I. Clinician
follow-up of children screened for lead poisoning. American Journal of
Public Health. 89(7):1088-90, 1999 Jul.|
Interventions- Dust Control
|Lanphear BP. Howard C. Eberly S. Auinger P. Kolassa
J. Weitzman M. Schaffer SJ. Alexander K. Primary prevention of
childhood lead exposure: A randomized trial of dust control.
Pediatrics. 103(4 Pt 1):772-7, 1999 Apr.|
Interventions- Housing\ Lead-Based Paint Abatement
|Farfel MR, Chisolm JJ Jr, Rohde CA. The longer-term
effectiveness of residential lead paint abatement. Environ Res.