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About Lead Poisoning
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Following are many of the foundation documents about lead poisoning, its causes, consequences, and costs:

Overviews of Lead Poisoning

bulletBinder S, Falk H. Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. Atlanta, Ga: Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1991.
bulletCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Atlanta, Ga: Dept of Health and Human Services; 1991.
bulletLanphear BP. The paradox of lead poisoning prevention [published erratum appears in Science 1998 Oct 2;282(5386):51] [see comments]. Science.281(5383):1617-8, 1998 Sep 11.
bulletLanphear BP. Byrd RS. Auinger P. Schaffer SJ. Community characteristics associated with elevated blood lead levels in children. Pediatrics. 101(2):264-71, 1998 Feb. Pub Med ID: 9445502
bulletNeedleman HL. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention [see comments]. [Review] [38 refs] American Journal of Public Health. 88(12):1871-7, 1998 Dec.

Lead's Effect on  IQ

bulletCanfield RL, Henderson CR, Cory-Slechta DA, et al. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 mcg per deciliter. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:1517-26. (abstract)
bulletLanphear BP. Dietrich K. Auinger P. Cox C. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 microg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Reports. 115(6):521-9, 2000 Nov-Dec. (abstract) Pub Med ID: 11354334
bulletPayton M, Riggs KM, Spiro A, Weiss ST, Hu H. Relations of bone and blood lead to cognitive function: the VA Normative Aging Study. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998;20:19-27.
bulletSchwartz J. Low-level lead exposure and children's IQ: a meta-analysis and search for a threshold. Environ Res. 1994;65:42-55.
bulletSoong WT. Chao KY. Jang CS. Wang JD. Long-term effect of increased lead absorption on intelligence of children. Archives of Environmental Health. 54(4):297-301, 1999 Jul-Aug.

Lead's Effect on Kid's Classroom Performance

bulletBellinger DC, Stiles KM, Needleman HL. Low-level lead exposure, intelligence, and academic achievement: a long-term follow-up study. Pediatrics. 1992;90:855-861.
bulletNeedleman, HL, Gunnoe, C, Leviton,A et al(1979) Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance in children with elevated dentine lead levels. NEJM 300, 584-695.

Lead's Effect on Juvenile Delinquency & Adult Criminality

bulletNeedleman HL, Riess JA, Tobin MJ, Biesecker GE, Greenhouse JB. Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior [see comments]. JAMA 1996;275(5):363-9.
bulletNeedleman HL, McFarland C, Ness RB, Fienberg SE, Tobin MJ. Bone lead levels in adjudicated delinquents - a case control study. Neurotox Teratol. 2002;24:711-7.
bulletDietrich KN, Ris MD, Succop PA, Berger OG, Bornschein RL. Early exposure to lead and juvenile delinquency. Neurotox Teratol. 2001;23:511-8.
bulletStretescky PB, Lynch MJ. The relationship between lead exposure and homicide. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001;155:579-82.
bulletNeedleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred EN. The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:83-8.

Lead's Effect on Kid's Brain Development

bulletGoldstein GW. Needleman HL, editors.Human Lead Exposure. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1992; Developmental Neurobiology of Lead Toxicity. p. 125-35.

Lead's Effect on Overall Child Development

bulletDavis JM, Svendsgaard DJ. Lead and child development. Nature. 1987;329:298-300.

Lead during pregnancy

bulletGardella C. Lead exposure in pregnancy: a review of the literature and argument for routine prenatal screening. [Review] [51 refs] Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 56(4):231-8, 2001 Apr.
bulletGomaa A, Hu H, Bellinger D, Schwartz J, Tsaih SW, Gonzalez-Cossio T, Schnaas L, Peterson K, Aro A, Hernandez-Avila M. Maternal Bone Lead as an Independent Risk Factor for Fetal Neurotoxicity: A Prospective Study, PEDIATRICS Vol. 110 No. 1 July 2002, pp. 110-118. Abstract. Pub Med ID 12093955

Lead and Lactation

bulletMartha María Téllez-Rojo, Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Teresa González-Cossío, Isabelle Romieu, Antonio Aro, Eduardo Palazuelos, Joel Schwartz, and Howard Hu. Impact of Breastfeeding on the Mobilization of Lead from Bone Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:420-428.

Lead in Bone- A Measure of Cumulative Exposure, & Endogenous Source of Continued Poisoning

bulletHu H, Milder FL, Burger DE. X-ray fluorescence: issues surrounding the application of a new tool for measuring burden of lead. Environmental Research 1989;49(2):295-317.
bulletHu H, Milder FL, Burger DE. X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead burden in subjects with low-level community lead exposure. Archives of Environmental Health 1990;45(6):335-41.
bulletHu H, Rabinowitz M, Smith D. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. [Review] [94 refs].[Abstract] Environmental Health Perspectives 1998;106(1):1-8.
bulletHu H, Watanabe H, Payton M, Korrick S, Rotnitzky A. The relationship between bone lead and hemoglobin. JAMA 1994;272(19):1512-7.
bulletH. Hu and M. Hernandez-Avila. Invited Commentary: Lead, Bones, Women, and Pregnancy--The Poison Within? Am. J. Epidemiol., December 15, 2002; 156(12): 1088 - 1091.

Lead's Contribution to Dental Caries

bulletMoss ME. Lanphear BP. Auinger P. Association of dental caries and blood lead levels [see comments]. JAMA. 281(24):2294-8, 1999 Jun 23-30.

Costs to Society of Continued Childhood Lead Poisoning

bulletMuir T, Zegarac M. Societal costs of exposure to toxic substances: Economic and health costs of four case studies that are candidates for environmental causation. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(suppl 6):885-903. (Full Text: PDF: ) Pub Med ID: 11744507
bulletGrosse, Scott D., Matte, Thomas, Schwartz, Joel , and Richard Jackson; "Economic Gains Resulting from the Reduction in Children's Exposure to Lead in the United States," Environmental Health Perspectives, Volume 110, Number 6(June 2002) 
bulletSalkever, David; "Updated Estimates of Earnings Benefits from Reduced Exposure of Children to Environmental Lead."Environmental Research, 70,1-6 (1996).
bulletSchwartz, Joel ;"Societal Benefits of Reducing Lead Exposure", Environmental Research, 66, 105-124 (1994) 

Interventions- Screening and Environmental Interventions

bulletMarkowitz M. Rosen JF. Clemente I. Clinician follow-up of children screened for lead poisoning. American Journal of Public Health. 89(7):1088-90, 1999 Jul.

Interventions- Dust Control

bulletLanphear BP. Howard C. Eberly S. Auinger P. Kolassa J. Weitzman M. Schaffer SJ. Alexander K. Primary prevention of childhood lead exposure: A randomized trial of dust control. Pediatrics. 103(4 Pt 1):772-7, 1999 Apr.

Interventions- Housing\ Lead-Based Paint Abatement

bulletFarfel MR, Chisolm JJ Jr, Rohde CA. The longer-term effectiveness of residential lead paint abatement. Environ Res. 1994;66:217-221.




Coalition to Prevent Lead Poisoning 

Committed to ending childhood lead poisoning in Monroe County by 2010

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